Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) reached Arafa on the day of Hajj and stayed there, till he asked for his camel, Kaswa, which he rode down to the valley. It was there where our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) the most learned man who ever lived, delivered his last sermon, which is also known as Khutba-e-Hujjat-ul-Wida.
He started by saying, “O people! Listen to my words, for I do not know whether we shall meet again and perform Hajj after this year..”
1. Equality of All Humans
He, Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah says all humans are equal to each other. He created you from one man and one female, then distributed you into tribes and nations. No-Arab has superiority over a non-Arab and no white has superiority over a black.
2. Observance of Rights
The Holy Prophet (PBUH) remarked towards the wrongdoers that on the Day of Judgement, they should not expect and come to Him for his help – only the ones who do good deeds will be able to do so.
3. Rights to Life
He (PBUH) said that whatever we, humans, make for ourselves in this world – property, honor, respect et cetera – it is all of value till we appear before Allah. He (PBUH) added that all this would not matter when we return to Allah.
4. Right of Protection of Property
Just as the Prophet (PBUH) was known as Ameen (the trusted) – all humans, if they are trusted must return whatever they have been asked t o take care of, to its rightful owners.
5. Rights of Society Members
He (PBUH) said that every Muslim is a brother of another, and together we form a brotherhood. The best example to this was the charter of Medina, brotherhood between the Ansar and Muhajireen.
6. Rights of Slaves and Servants
If you do have slaves or servants, he or she should eat the same food as you, wear the same clothes as you. An example of this feature was Hazrat Bilal (R.A) and his high podium in Islam.
7. Eradication of Lawlessness
He (PBUH) said that the days of ignorance were now long gone, revenge for blood was an abolished concept in our religion. He explained the example of Hazrat Ibn-Rabiah-bin-Haris (R.A) who was killed by the Hudayls – He, Himself, abolished the claim of blood revenge with this.
8. Protection Against Economic Exploitation
The Prophet (PBUH) said that all dues, financial, from the times of Paganism and ignorance were wiped out and did not count. Here, He (PBUH) stressed the example of His uncle, Abbas ibn-e-Abdul Mutalib and He (PBUH) remits all the dues his uncle was to receive – giving the notion a fresh start.
9. Right of Inheritance
The Prophet (PBUH) said that the law of inheritance had been laid down in Islam through Shariah – there was no need of special testament for an heir to claim his share.
10. Obedience of Law
He (PBUH) said that He was leaving behind a complete code of life which held all the needed laws, the Holy Quran, and to follow the religion within its bounds.
Thereupon, in the end, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) pointed his finger towards the skies and then his people and said: “O’ Lord! Bear Thou witness unto it!”